ICTS Reports

Role of Diplomacy Nov 2017 Cover lgIn view of the multiple security challenges to international peace and order posed by the intensification of terrorist attacks for over the past half-century, governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental bodies have developed tactical and strategic responses on national, regional, and global levels. The role of diplomacy is, indeed, a critical element in the evolving process.

The purpose of this report on “The Role of Diplomacy in Combating Terrorism: Selected U.S. Perspectives” to focus specifically on the role of diplomacy in combating terrorism relevant to experiences of the United States and their implications internationally. The key question is whether the U.S. and the international community is capable of crafting adequate responses to terrorism, diffusing expanding conflicts regionally and inter-regionally, engaging in constructive peace processes, and striking a delicate balance between security measures and democratic value systems.

Download the report here.

RuleofLaw1Ensuring the safety and interests of citizens at home and abroad continues to be every government’s paramount responsibility. The purpose of this report is to focus on the interface between terrorism and the rule of law. The key question is whether nations can strike a balance between security concerns and protecting civil liberties and constitutional order.

“Terrorism and the Rule of Law: Selected Perspectives” features presentations by experts with extensive academic and government experience. Some of the topics covered include the “War on Terror,” the role of intelligence, law enforcement, detention, civil and military trials, punishment of terrorists, hostage-taking, and other relevant issues.

Download the report here.

WMD8 17a

Preventing the proliferation of biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear weapons has been a major priority for many nation states in the post-World War II era. Additionally, in the aftermath of 9/11, there has been a growing awareness globally of the potential dangers posed by terrorist groups who may resort to WMD capabilities.

The purpose of this report on “Preventing WMD Terrorism: Ten Perspectives” is to provide some recent insights from experts on lessons learned, assessments of future challenges, and offer recommendations on response strategies to reduce the risk on national and international levels.

Download the report here.

Biological Terrorism cover june

Biological security concerns are permanent fixtures of history, ranging from Mother Nature’s infectious diseases to man-made threats by state and non-state actors. Thus, as the international community is currently approaching the 100 year anniversary of the 1918 influenza pandemic that killed an estimated 50-100 million people, it is assessing the implications of the recent epidemics of Ebola and Zika, considering potential dangers of biological terrorism, and beginning to offer recommendations on response strategies to reduce the risk on national, regional, and global levels.

This June 2017 report on “Biological Terrorism: Past Lessons and Future Outlook” serves as an academic effort to provide insights from former U.S. officials, members of Congress, and other experts on these looming security challenges.

Download the report here.

LatinAmerica1aLatin America continues to face multiple security challenges including natural disasters, infectious diseases, organized crime, terrorism, migration, economic development, and threats to democratic governance.

This April 2017 report on “Latin America’s Strategic Outlook: Populist Politics, Health Concerns, and Other Security Challenges” deals with recent security-related developments such as the Rio Olympics, the Zika epidemic, and post-Castro-era assessments.

Download the report here.

Tehran's Bomb ChallengeIntroduction
Professor Yonah Alexander
Director, Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies

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     The rise of power in Iran of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the November 1979 seizure of the United States Embassy in Tehran and of some 60 American hostages by “revolutionary students” triggered a flurry of introspection in Washington concerning the policies which successive Administrations had followed with a country of enormous strategic and economic importance in the Middle East.

     Among the questions that have been raised during that historical period were the following: What had gone wrong? Why had the United States failed to assess correctly the strength of the elements that brought down the Shah [Shahanshah, King of Kings, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi in January 1979, after a 37-year rule]? Why had the United States linked its fortunes so closely to those of the Shah in the first place? What did the national interests of the United States consist of as applied to Iran? What were the full implications of the transformation of Iran from a friendly ally to a hostile adversary of the United States?

 

     These and related issues were analyzed in a study on The United States and Iran: A Documentary History, co-edited by Yonah Alexander and Allan Nanes and published by the University Publications of America in 1980. This work was prepared in association with the World Power Studies Program of the Center for Strategic and International Studies at Georgetown University.

     During the next 34 years, other research efforts have been undertaken, focusing on Iran’s strategic and tactical intentions, capabilities, and actions. For instance, Tehran’s expanding terrorism role was discussed within the framework of the study, Terrorism: As State-Sponsored of Covert Warfare, co-authored by Ray S. Cline and Yonah Alexander and published by Hero Books in 1986. This work was undertaken in cooperation with the Center of Strategic and International Studies of Georgetown University and prepared at the request of the Subcommittee on Security and Terrorism for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States Senate. This publication underscored the fact that the goal of psychological terror and physical violence employed by totalitarian dictatorships, like the Iranian regime, is to maintain control of their own people and to expand this kind of control over other regions and nations. In the face of Iran’s terrorism challenge, the United States, its friends and allies, particularly Israel, have developed a wide range of countermeasures. They consisted inter alia of intelligence, economic and security assistance, political and diplomatic pressures, economic sanctions, clandestine counter-terrorism infiltrations, and overt military operations.

 

 Despite these activities, Tehran continued to resort to terrorism at home and abroad. Additionally, Iran’s apparent vision of a country becoming the dominant power in the Middle East had led its leadership to develop a nuclear program in open defiance of United Nations resolutions. In this connection, the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies (IUCTS, a consortium of universities and think tanks operating in over 40 countries) had conducted a major research project resulting in the release of a study on The New Iranian Leadership: Ahmadinejad, Nuclear Ambition, and the Middle East. This book, co-authored by Yonah Alexander and Milton Hoenig, was published by Praeger Security International in 2007. It documents Ahmadinejad’s background and rise to power and explains the structure of the Iranian Revolutionary government—the competing centers of power and the major players. The study then details the terrorist groups funded and armed by Iran, primarily Hizballah and Hamas. It also provides a comprehensive picture of Iran’s apparent aspirations to acquire nuclear weapons, as well as the related implications for regional and global security concerns.

     Moreover, numerous seminars and conferences related to the multiple Iranian security challenges to the international community were held in the United States and abroad. For example, on December 6, 2011, a seminar was co-sponsored by the IUCTS, International Center for Terrorism Studies (ICTS) at Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, and the Inter-University Center for Legal Studies (IUCLS) at the International Law Institute. The topic was “Iran’s Nuclear Program: A Final Warning?” and held at Potomac Institute for Policy Studies in Arlington, VA. The event highlighted Tehran’s nuclear weapon program amidst the backdrop of an uncertain political reality in the Middle East. Moderated by Professor Yonah Alexander, a panel of experts included Dr. Leonard S. Spector (Executive Director, Washington, DC, Office, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterrey Institute of International Studies); Dr. Christopher A. Ford (Senior Fellow and Director, Center for Technology and Global Security, Hudson Institute); Michael Eisenstadt (Director, Military and Security Studies Program, Washington Institute for Near East Policy); Guy Roberts (Former Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Policy and Director, Nuclear Policy, Emerging Security Challenges Division, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); and Professor Don Wallace, Jr. (Chairman, International Law Institute). Because of the relevance of this topic, a summary of this event follows.

     Dr. Spector offered four main points: First, he warned that the West had only one to three years to counter Iran before it gained the ability to rapidly produce a small arsenal of nuclear warheads. Second, he stressed that although current measures to stop Iran from achieving this goal are often innovative and are being pressed aggressively by the United States and like- minded governments, they have not yet proven effective, and Iran continues to make progress toward acquiring a nuclear-weapon capability.

     Third, he said, this apparent reality makes it necessary to escalate U.S. and international efforts both to pressure Iran to halt its sensitive nuclear activities and to prevent its further progress. Such escalation is likely to entail tougher sanctions against the Central Bank of Iran and, in all probability, an intensification of covert operations against Iran’s nuclear program. Citing comments by the then Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta, Dr. Spector noted that overt military action, while “on the table” in theory, appears to be “off the table,” as a practical matter, at least for now. But Panetta left the door open for covert actions. Some, such as “accidental” explosions at sensitive sites, Dr. Spector argued, might be as destructive as an air strike. He also noted that sanctions originally directed at the Iranian nuclear program had become so broad that they appear to be aimed increasingly at weakening the Iranian regime.
   

     That brought Dr. Spector to his fourth point, which he referred to as “Operation Arab Spring.” Noting that the regime of Bashar Assad appears to be crumbling in Syria, he stressed that when it falls, possibly within the next six months, Iran will lose its only national ally in the region. This would not only reduce the risk of Iran fomenting a wider war in the Middle East in response to interventions to curb its nuclear program, but would also force the Iranian Revolutionary Government to focus its energies on what will certainly be growing domestic challenges to its survival – challenges that will take strength from the Syrian precedent. Indeed, Dr. Spector concluded, if one looks at the combination of what is happening in Syria and the broader sanctions being imposed to undermine the legitimacy of the current Iranian regime, overall U.S. “grand strategy” may well be to promote the overthrow of the mullahs once the Syrian domino has fallen.

     The next speaker, Dr. Christopher A. Ford, discussed three distinct arguments against clandestine warfare and how he expected that U.S. officials might respond to those arguments in pondering the prospect of such a campaign. The first argument he addressed discussed the notion that clandestine warfare is illegal. Dr. Ford set the grounds for his argument acknowledging that both the United States and Israel have left overt military action on the table for addressing Iran’s nuclear program, which implies that a military offensive would be deemed legal by both actors. (Indeed, both nations have set a precedent of preemptive military strikes on rogue states’ nuclear weapon facilities as demonstrated in Iraq and Syria.) Dr. Ford argued that if preemptive action against an offensive weapons of mass destruction (WMD) program is an act of self defense and is a “legally available” option, then so also must be the “lesser-included” policy of covert war.

     He also discussed the implications of a covert war, as compared to an overt military strike, through the prism of international humanitarian law. Traditional military strikes might be more effective than most covert means in damaging a nuclear program, but they might also produce more collateral damage and come at a higher geopolitical cost than covert strikes. Covert methods might thus be depicted as morally superior to “legal” military action, and certainly not inconsistent with law-of-war principles stressing the minimization of suffering.

     Dr. Ford then discussed the “Caroline Case” of 1837, which provides a frequently-cited articulation of the legal precedent for preemptive warfare. The British viewpoint expressed in that episode – coupled with the parties’ difficulty in arriving at a common understanding of how to operationalize the agreed legal standard, which suggests the flexibility of the concept – arguably supports the idea that it is justifiable to engage in anticipatory self-defense against an assailant in the more modern context of emerging WMD threats. Dr. Ford then suggested that U.S. officials might find a further ground for a campaign against Iran because Tehran is passively and directly supporting terrorism, going so far as aiding and abetting al-Qa’ida and the Taliban in their war against the United States. The United States has demonstrated that it believes itself to have legal authority for using force against al-Qa’ida and all its supporters, grounded in self-defense and the Authorization for Use of Military Force enacted on September 18, 2001, and this might be felt now to apply against Iran.

     The next argument against covert action Dr. Ford addressed is the idea that covert warfare would provoke a bloodbath and that Iran is on a much more level playing field in this type of warfare. He agreed that Iran is adept at covert war, but noted that Iran already considers itself to be in such a conflict, and has been actively engaged in a covert war against the United States for the past three decades. Iran has supported and directed terror operations against the United States ranging from the Beirut bombing to the plot to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to the United States. From Iran’s perspective, no covert war taboo remains to be broken; the main question is what the United States will do on its side of the campaign.

     The last idea that Dr. Ford discusses is that counter-proliferation is unlikely to stop Iran’s program. He acknowledges that this notion does indeed have some legitimacy, suggesting that disruptive tactics will not end the program but merely delay it. Though these tactics by themselves may prove to be unsuccessful, however, if coupled with other strategies to address the Iranian problem, they might provide enough time to stop the program by other means (e.g., regime change). Finally, Dr. Ford stresses the importance of making Iran policy with an eye not merely to counter-proliferation in Iran but also to the international nuclear nonproliferation regime as a whole. Even if Iran ultimately succeeds in developing nuclear weapons, U.S. officials might find it very important to make the cost of such a program to be as high as possible in order to serve as an example to other would-be nuclear proliferator states. This systemic rationale might provide a reason to justify a covert campaign against Iran for years to come.

     Michael Eisenstadt then discussed the larger consequences of Iranian nuclear proliferation, comparing it to Pakistan, China, Russia, and North Korea and their practice of sharing weapon technology. In response to the threat posed by Iran, regional powers have significantly increased their conventional military forces as well as expressed interest in pursuing their own “civilian” nuclear programs. This regional militarization is inherently dangerous for stability and could have massive international implications. Iran wants to create the perception that its development of nuclear power is inevitable with the creation of covert facilities, the use of mixed messages and double entendres, and symbolic demonstrations, such as showing their missiles instead of nuclear weapons. Thus, the Iranians are already using their program as a deterrent against the United States and other regional opponents. Eisenstadt suggests that Iran’s other option is to create all of the necessary infrastructure for an atomic weapon without making the bomb itself. He suggests that at the moment Iran might not have the capability to create a weapon, but if they stockpile enriched uranium and delivery systems, then years down the road they can make one rapidly if need be. Ultimately, Iran would not have invested this much energy and capital as well as such faced harsh sanctions if they were not bent on creating nuclear weapons at some point. Eisenstadt believes that U.S. policy towards Iran needs to be reset in order for the United States to rebuild its credibility and force Iran to believe our threats. The recent attempt to engage in terrorism on American soil is an indication that Iran no longer fears U.S. military retribution.

     Guy Roberts, the next speaker, explained that the United States is already at war with Iran, from Iran’s involvement with Hizballah to the Quds Force activities in Iraq and Afghanistan. As a result, covert war should continue, but overt war is also a perfectly viable option. Iran is moving deeper into South America, specifically Venezuela and Bolivia. Thus, the United States needs to be more assertive to stop Iran’s global spread. The United States needs to address every facet of any potential Iranian offense and show Iran the true cost of its nuclear program. If the United States and NATO become more assertive and aggressive, then Iran would be forced to see the west’s threats as credible and possibly end their program. The European Union and NATO also need to present Iran with incentives to stop their nuclear weapons program. The carrot and stick approach must be fully utilized to ensure the security of NATO members, especially Turkey which is vulnerable to Iranian hostility. Roberts suggests that the United States and NATO may have to demonstrate the “teeth to our bite” if Iran continues to develop its weapons program. He believes the region needs a strong military commitment to ensure stability and act as a deterrent to other nations who may attempt to proliferate. Ultimately, this commitment could lead to a potential WMD free zone in the Middle East, which Roberts believes to be the best scenario for future stability and security.

     Professor Don Wallace, Jr., closed the individual presentation portion of the seminar. He agreed with many of the speakers that, apart from the specific challenge of Iran, the viability of the Nonproliferation Treaty must be ensured. He believes the Iranians to be an extremely proud and ambitious people, so even if there were regime change, a new regime may not stop their attempts to build a nuclear weapon. In his view, co-existing with a nuclear-armed Iran is a scenario that is completely unacceptable.

     Indeed, the foregoing insights discussed three years ago do provide a useful context to the latest seminar on “Tehran’s Bomb Challenge: Crossroads, Roadblocks, and Roadmaps to Rapproachment?” held on December 5, 2013, at Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. This event, moderated by Professor Yonah Alexander, consisted of a panel with Bijan R. Kian (highest ranking Iranian-American to serve two U.S. presidents, held other careers in both business and a former Senior Fellow, Naval Postgraduate School); Ambassador Noam Katz (former
Dr. Anthony Fainberg (former Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Director of Office of Policy and Planning for Aviation Security and
currently consultant for the Institute for Defense Analyses), and Dr. Emanuele Ottolenghi (Senior Fellow at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies and the author of The Pasdaran: Inside Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps.).
As this report goes to press, several developments related to Iran during January-March 2014 are noteworthy:

     First, Saudi Arabia provided the Lebanese army a 3 billion dollar grant to counter Hizballah, Iran’s proxy.

     Second, the al-Qa’ida-linked Abdullah Azzam Brigades claimed responsibility for twin suicide bombings targeting the Iranian Cultural Center in Beirut in retaliation to Hizballah and Tehran’s role in the Syrian war.

     Third, Iran reported that it perfected multiple-warhead, medium-range ballistic missiles designed specifically to attack American targets. It also declared that the West “cannot entertain illusions” of Tehran completely ending its enrichment program.

     Fourth, the Israeli Navy seized the Klos-C, sailing under a Panamanian flag, in the Red Sea, off the coast of Sudan. The ship was carrying dozens of M-302 rockets intended for the Islamic Jihad in Gaza. This “arms export” operation was coordinated by Iran.
Ambassador of Israel to Nigeria and Ghana and currently Minister of Public Diplomacy at the
Israeli Embassy in Washington);

     And fifth, the U.S. Congress in bipartisan letters to President Obama asserted that in whatever a final agreement with Iran, the Islamic Republic must not retain any capability to pursue a nuclear weapon.

     Finally, an appreciation is due to Michael S. Swetnam (Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies) and Professor Don Wallace, Jr. (Chairman, International Law Institute) who participated actively at the December 5, 2013, seminar. Additionally, the research background for this report was provided by the Winter 2013 and Spring 2014 team of graduate and undergraduate interns coordinated by Sharon Layani (University of Michigan). The team included James Nusse (The George Washington University), Michael Klement (University of Denver), Sheila Davis (Duquense University), William Docimo (London School of Economics), Stephanie Rieger (University of Wisconsin), David Wiese (University of Exeter), Kai Huntamer (University of California, Los Angeles), Courtney Van Wagner (University of Georgia), Garth Keffer (University of California, Davis), Roxanne Oroxom (University of Maryland), John Jermyn (University at Albany, the State University of New York), and G. Genghis Hallsby (University of Iowa). Mary Ann Culver prepared the manuscript for publication. All these individuals deserve special gratitude for their efficient support.

 

Cover IUCTS 2017On April 13,2017,the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies (IUCTS) published its eighth annual report, "Terrorism in North Africa and the Sahel in 2016," authored by Prof. Yonah Alexander, Director--IUCTS. The report finds the region & global community facing the most serious security challenges since 9/11, from natural and man-made threats. The rise of the Islamic State and the resilience of al-Qa’ida and their affiliates in Africa in 2016 have resulted in continued instability on the continent with a costly strategic impact inter-regionally. The study recommends the U.S. & allies engage more effectively to slow a security crisis that is erupting across Africa’s “arc of instability.”

Download the report here.

loneWbThe latest terrorist incidents in the U.S., Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and elsewhere, are once again a grim reminder of the expanding operational roles of "lone wolves." Whether they are self-radicalized or linked to home-grown or foreign groups, their involvement reflects a worrisome weakness in the security chain of modern society.

This February 2017 report on “The Lone Wolf Terrorist: Past Lessons, Future Outlook, and Response Strategies” focuses on some of the “lone wolf” challenges. These include security threats to the safety, welfare, and rights of ordinary people; the stability of the state system; the impact on national, regional, and global economic development; the expansion of democratic societies; and the prevention of the destruction of civilization by biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons.

Download the report here.

NatoNATO, as it marked its 68th anniversary, is still facing a broad range of old and new challenges, including piracy, terrorism, regional and global conflicts, humanitarian crises, proliferation of WMD, and cyber threats.

In light of these and other strategic concerns, the latest NATO Warsaw Summit in 2016 focused inter alia on strengthening and modernizing the Alliance’s deterrence and defense posture and projecting stability beyond its Eastern borders. The question arises whether the 28 nations’ partnership will continue to play its essential political and military role in the coming years.

This January 2017 report on “NATO’s Strategy: Continuity or Change?” provides a recent academic effort to analyze whether NATO, at this stage of its evolution, is capable of completing its transformation from an earlier static defense alliance into a more effective regional and global security provider.

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As the new administration of President Donald J. Trump is beginning to develop its Middle East foreign policy strategy, the decades-old Israeli-Palestinian conflict still persists. In addition to the multiple outstanding issues to be resolved by the parties, such as the need for mutual recognition and the settling of boundary disputes, questions remain regarding the future of Jerusalem, the Holy City, which is considered by Israel as its eternal capital—and which the Palestinians also see as their own capital in a future state.

This current report on "The Holy Jerusalem: A Key to Middle East War or Peace?" provides a recent academic effort focusing on two questions. First, can religion in general serve as an effective bridge to advance the cause of peace in the Middle East and elsewhere? And second, will the antagonists and their partisan Jewish, Muslim, and Christian co-religionists be capable of a peaceful resolution on the final status of the Holy City?

Download the PDF here.

turkey2

In the wake of the failed coup in July 2016, many questions have arisen both domestically and internationally regarding Turkey’s future political, social, economic, and strategic direction. Among them are how will Turkey to continue to maintain a balance between security concerns and civil liberties domestically, as well as contribute to international efforts, including NATO’s mission, to advance stability regionally and globally.

This current report on “Post-Attempted Coup in Turkey: Quo Vadis?” provides a recent academic effort focusing on these issues as well as other related strategic concerns include the refugee crisis, the impact on the fight against the Islamic State, and Turkey’s relations with regional and global powers.

 

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The failure of contemporary societies during the past sixty years in the post-World War II period to effectively combat terrorism at home and abroad is, indeed, puzzling. After all, all nations are fully aware that the most critical element in combating the challenge of terrorism is intelligence. That is, the knowledge acquired, whether overtly or covertly, for the purpose of both internal and external statecraft.

And yet, despite this awareness, the grim reality is that terrorism is still attractive and works. For instance, according to recent press reports, during the past year and a half alone some 2,063 attacks were recorded in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia, with a death toll of 28,031. Likewise, 46 attacks occurred in Europe and the Americas, and as a result of which some 658 were killed.

The purpose of this introduction is to provide an academic context for the apparent lingering confusion regarding the nature and implications of intelligence in democracies. It presents a brief overview of the challenge of modern terrorism, outlines key aspects of the role of intelligence in confronting the threats at home and abroad, and reports on the two latest academic efforts in this security area that are incorporated in this study.

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Purpose and Scope

There exists the need to educate policy-makers, and the public in general, on the nature and intensity of the terrorism threat in the twenty-first century.  As a member of the academic and research community, the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies has an intellectual obligation, as well as a moral and practical responsibility, to participate in the international effort to arrest the virus of terrorism.  The purpose of the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies (IUCTS) is four-fold:

1. To monitor current and future threats of terrorism;

2. To develop response strategies on governmental and non-governmental levels;

3. To effect continual communication with policy-makers, academic institutions, business, media, and civic organizations;

4. To sponsor research programs on critical issues, particularly those relating enabling technologies with policy, and share findings nationally and internationally.

ICTS Events

  • Czech Republic-U.S. Strategic Partnership

    INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM STUDIES AT POTOMAC INSTITUTE FOR POLICY STUDIES "Czech Republic-U.S. Strategic Partnership" November 13, 2017 Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the U.S. and the Czech Republic in 1993, both countries have created common approaches to address multiple challenges nationally, regionally, and globally. Ambassador Hynek Kmonicek provided a unique assessment of the nature of this strategic partnership, including a discussion on security concerns (e.g., NATO, Syria) as well as promoting economic…

  • Combating Terrorism: Reflections over the Generations

    INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM STUDIES AT POTOMAC INSTITUTE FOR POLICY STUDIES "Combating Terrorism: Reflections over the Generations" Conversation with Ambassador (Ret.) Gustavo de Aristegui February 9, 2018 Gustavo de Aristegui was born on June 6, 1963 in a diplomatic family – father, two uncles, grandfather, and great-great uncle were all diplomats. He studied Law at Universidad Pontificia Comillas (ICADE) and then spent a year in the Spanish Diplomatic Academy. He served in the European Division, in the Africa…

  • National, Regional, and Global Terrorism: An Israeli Perspective

    INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM STUDIES AT POTOMAC INSTITUTE FOR POLICY STUDIES "National, Regional, and Global Terrorism: An Israeli Perspective" with Yoram Schweitzer January 31, 2018 Since the establishment of the State of Israel nearly seventy years ago, it has continuously faced terrorism threats from state and non-state actors both at home and abroad. What are Israel’s counterterrorism lessons within the context of broader regional and global challenges? Unique insights on these and related security concerns…

The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), the set of regulations that limit U.S. exports in the name of national security, need to be rescinded with new enabling legislation because they continue to be a threat to the United States (U.S.) national security and economic interests despite a well-intended Executive reform initiative that has taken place over the last seven years.

coverPIPSITAR

In this breakthrough book, General Al Gray and Dr. Paul Otte provide a new model for achieving a higher level of leadership. This book validates the struggles of the Conflicted Leader – one who must lead individuals and organizations as our world moves through ever-evolving waves of change. But, the authors do more than address what many leaders today are experiencing. They propose a new way of making a difference though Vantage Leadership, defined as the ability to embrace uncertainty, see the possible over the probable, remain conceptual through conflict, and more.

“If you only look for leadership in the usual places, you will only find the usual leadership.”

A new report published in March by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the Organization of American States (OAS) called on countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to step up their efforts on cybersecurity or face “potentially devastating” cyber attacks. Members of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies’ Cyber Readiness Index team collaborated with IDB, OAS, and other academic and policy institutions to analyze the cyber preparedness of 32 OAS countries based on 42 indicators. It is the first significant examination of the level of preparedness against growing cyber threats in Latin America and the Caribbean based on two unique frameworks. 2016 Cyber Security Report

 

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Alternative Futures for Corrosion and Degradation Research

By Dr. Robert Hummel

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies is pleased to present Alternative Futures for Corrosion and Degradation Research. This book, authored by study lead Dr. Robert Hummel, Chief Scientist of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, arose out of a study conducted for the Office of Corrosion Policy and Oversight (CPO) of the Office of the Secretary of Defense on research directions for alternative futures for corrosion and degradation.

Alternative Futures for Corrosion and Degradation Research offers a road map for novel research directions that could lead to dramatic changes in how the nation views and deals with corrosion and degradation problems.  Corrosion is a national problem that goes beyond the rusting of metal. The issues associated with corrosion and degradation are responsible for more than one trillion dollars in annual national expenditures.

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A Life at Full Speed: A Journal of Struggle and Discovery

by Charles M. Herzfeld

Among computer science aficionados, Dr. Charles Herzfeld is affectionately known as the “Godfather of the Internet.” As Director of ARPA, the 1960s forerunner of DARPA (today’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), he was the force behind the development of the ARPANET, which ultimately became the Internet we know today. But what many do not know is the backstory behind this phenomenal achievement. The heady political, cultural and scientific milieu of that time was his element, and he emerged as a true high-tech legend. His numerous awards and honors include induction into the Internet Hall of Fame in 2012, with the title of “Pioneer.” Charles Herzfeld’s life story is an iconic American tale. Here, in his own words, is that story.

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Al Gray, Marine: The Early Years, 1950-1967 Vol.1

$29.95

Author: Scott Laidig;

Foreword by General Anthony Zinni, USMC (Ret);

Preface by Dr. John F. Guilmartin, Lt Col, USAF (Ret);

ISBN:978-0-9852483-0-7

In this first volume of the authorized Al Gray, Marine biography series, author, Scott Laidig gives a detailed account of Al Gray as a young sergeant in the Amphibious Reconnaissance Platoon through his tours with the artillery, the infantry, special operations, and intelligence units through 1967. This work is well-researched and referenced – rich with personal and historical details, images, anecdotes and colorful episodes that bring this remarkable Marine’s experiences to life on the page. Hardbound and Kindle editions are available through Amazon and through our distributor, Baker & Taylor.

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U.S. Health Policy: An Insider's Perspective

By Dr. Tevi Troy

Hon. Tevi Troy, PhD, Senior Fellow’s book comes at the right time. U.S. Health Policy: An Insider’s Perspective thoughtfully assembles articles that Dr. Troy has written in publications ranging from The New Atlantis to The Wall Street Journal. He cohesively covers a number of subjects including Obamacare implementation, the government’s ability to impose its electronic medical records plan, biopreparedness, life science innovation, and Medicaid and Medicare.

Dr. Troy has travelled the world, representing both the Department of Heath and Human Services and the U.S. government as an ambassador for U.S. health care policy. In doing so, he was able to develop a better understanding of how to convey messages to a wide variety of people, “You can have the best policies in the world but they will not do any good if no one knows about them.”

USHealthPolicy

Grayisms

and other thoughts on leadership From General Al Gray, USMC (Retired) 29th Commandant of the Marine Corps 

Grayisms are the embodiment of simplicity and capture recurring statements made by the General during his 41 year career in the Marine Corps and in subsequent years. General Gray’s love of his Marines along with the Sailors who serve with them and how much they love and respect him in return, shines through Grayisms. He has great admiration for all our Armed Forces. Often one to shun head tables and staff cars for mess halls and jeeps, General Gray is a true leader to the Marines serving, not under, but beside him. He has never missed an opportunity to talk with the troops and is always eager to hear about what is happening on and off the field.  The Grayism exemplified in this philosophy is, “Leaders must truly care more about the people they lead than themselves.” Even as a Commandant, he has never lost his “enlisted” mentality when it comes to caring for his Marines.

grayisms

The Cyber Readiness Index (CRI) 2.0 team developed a ground-breaking methodology, known as the CRI 2.0, to evaluate and measure a country’s preparedness levels for certain cybersecurity risks. The team of experts apply the CRI 2.0 to provide a compelling and actionable review of a country’s policies, plans, laws, standards, market levers (e.g., incentives and regulations), and other initiatives. The resulting actionable blueprint enables a country to better understand its Internet-infrastructure dependencies and vulnerabilities and assess its commitment and maturity to closing the gap between its current cyber security posture and the national cyber capabilities needed to support its digital future.

 

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THINK BIG argues that innovation in science and technology are the keys to American economic strength and national security. Rather than a return to the infrastructure, economy, and healthcare systems of the past, the report calls for a vision for the future.

The report urges the new Administration to 1) develop policy based on the best available science and 2) use policy to foster the development of science and technology. The science and technology investment priorities identified in the THINK BIG report for the next Administration include:

· America’s Future Infrastructure
· Fostering American Industry Leadership
· Revolutionizing Medicine
· Climate Engineering

Download the full PDF here.

 

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The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense released its report, A National Blueprint for Biodefense: Leadership and Major Reform Needed to Optimize Efforts, in October 2015. The report identifies capability gaps and recommends changes to U.S. policy and law to strengthen national biodefense while optimizing resource investments. The panel is co-chaired by former Sen. Joe Lieberman and former Gov. Tom Ridge, who are joined by former Secretary of Health and Human Services Donna Shalala, former Sen. Tom Daschle, former Rep. Jim Greenwood, and the Hon. Kenneth Wainstein.

biodefense 1

 

Al Gray, Marine: The Early Years, 1968-1975 Vol.2

 

Author: Scott Laidig;

 

Most people know General Al Gray as the 29th Commandant of the Marine Corps. His achievements as a transformational Commandant are legendary within the Marine Corps and the military services. Volume 1 of the “Al Gray, Marine” series covered his time as an enlisted Marine and junior officer. In Volume 2, Scott Laidig tells us the story of a unique, charismatic Marine during his time as a field grade officer. From establishing innovative intelligence operations in Vietnam, to command of infantry units in the challenging times of the 1970s, through his leadership during the evacuation of Saigon in 1975, Al Gray’s story is exceptional. In many ways, the accomplishments of Al Gray rival those that he carried out as a General Officer or even as Commandant. In this book, the author tells the remarkable story of Al Gray, Marine. Volume 1 of "Al Gray, Marine" won the Marine Corps Heritage Foundation’s esteemed Colonel Joseph Alexander Prize for Best Biography of the Year for 2014! Following in that tradition, Volume 2 offers significant insights into General Gray’s activities and many accomplishments as a field grade officer.

Click to Purchase

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Wrong Page!  You want www.potomacinstitute.org

 

 

The video from the June 17th panel discussion on cyber scenarios is available here.

Our Challenge

In the 21st Century, technology is becoming increasingly pervasive. Communications, medicine, biotechnology, neurotechnology, robotics, pharmaceuticals, nanotechnology, energy, and transportation are just a few of the fields in which technology is rapidly changing. These cutting-edge technologies and scientific innovations will have an enormous impact on our lives and present a new set of challenges for our society. The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies seeks to (1) anticipate the problems our society will face in the future, and (2) work toward establishing meaningful policy options for addressing these problems before they come to fruition. The Institute is keenly aware that implementation of policy is perhaps the most difficult component in public endeavor. As a result, we do not merely conduct a world class study and provide a report. We roll up our sleeves as a think and “do” tank! 

 

Our Mission

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies is an independent not-for-profit policy research institute. The Institute identifies and aggressively shepherds discussion on key science and technology (S&T) and national security issues facing our society, providing an academic forum for the study of related policy issues. From these discussions and forums, we develop meaningful policy options and ensure their implementation at the intersection of business and government. 

 

Our Philosophy

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies follows two basic principles. First, we fiercely maintain objectivity and credibility, remaining independent of any federal or state agency, and owing no special allegiance to any political party or private concern. Second, we seek extensive collaboration with similar organizations, as well as with industry, academia and all levels of government. We believe that the study of today’s complex issues demands a wide variety of contributions from various perspectives. We are proud to call ourselves “fiercely objective” as a result of our track record in divorcing political issues from policy challenges. 

 

Areas of Expertise 

The Institute has conducted studies and provided support to the U.S. Congress, the Administration, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Army, the U.S. Marine Corps, the U.S. Air Force, the National Science Foundation, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Office of Naval Research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Defense Microelectronics Activity, the United States Coast Guard, the Department of Homeland Security, the Intelligence Community, and several leading foundations. 

  • Strategic planning

  • Policy and program development

  • Commercial technology assessment
  • Research studies and analysis

  • Communications and outreach

  • Operational concept application

  • S&T trends and forecasting 

Our History

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies provides nonpartisan, practical, and practicable analysis of science and technology policy to leaders in government, industry and academia. Our studies and policy reviews inform government officials in a manner that carries on the legacy of the former Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in the U.S. Congress, after which the Institute is modeled. 

For general information about the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, please contact us at:

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies
901 N. Stuart Street, Suite 200
Arlington, VA 22203
Telephone: 703.525.0770
Fax: 703.525.0299
email comments or questions to webmaster[at]potomacinstitute[dot]org

Center for Enterprise, Exploration, and Defense in Space (CEEDS)

CEEDS generates policy recommendations from dialogue with experts in the commercial, scientific, civil, and national security fields to identify options for the most critical policy issues facing our future activities in space. CEEDS will bring the Institute’s well-known technical rigor, policy expertise, and non-partisan objectivity to bear on the space domain, to provide senior decision makers a better understanding of the complex policy options in this increasingly important sector.

 

Center For Neurotechnology Studies (CNS)

The Center for Neurotechnology Studies (CNS) is directed by Dr. Jennifer Buss. CNS provides neutral, in-depth analysis of matters at the intersection of neuroscience and technology—neurotechnology—and public policy. The Center anticipates ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) associated with emerging neurotechnology, and shepherds constructive discourse on these issues. It provides a forum for reasoned consideration of issues both by subject area experts and by the public. The Center partners with the research community for discourse and consultation on ethically sound neurotechnology research and applications. The Center cultivates and stewards knowledge and discussion on the implications of neurotechnology in academic, administrative, entrepreneurial, regulatory, legislative and judicial enterprises. CNS serves as authoritative counsel to government agencies pursuing neurotechnology by providing expertise in the sciences, ethics, law and social policy.

 

International Center For Terrorism Studies (ICTS)

Terrorism has been a permanent fixture in human history. It is evident that the beginning of the twenty-first century marks the beginning of a new age of terrorism. In contrast with older precedents, modern-day terrorism is widespread, institutionalized, technologically advanced,and global in its consequences. Raising the stakes of this challenge is the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This alarming and dangerous trend increases the potential for "superterrorism"- biological, chemical, or nuclear violence - as well as the advent of information warfare and cyber-terrorism. As a member of the academic and research community, the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies has an intellectual obligation, as well as a moral and practical responsibility, to participate in the international effort to arrest the virus of terrorism. Accordingly, in 1998 the Institute established the International Center for Terrorism Studies to address the extensive issues surrounding the ever increasing anxiety of modern-day terrorism.

The International Center for Terrorism Studies (ICTS) is directed by Professor Yonah Alexander. Professor Alexander publishes numerous op-eds and articles and makes frequent appearances in international media.

 

Cyber Readiness Index

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies developed a ground-breaking methodology, known as the Cyber Readiness Index (CRI 2.0), to evaluate and measure a country’s preparedness levels for certain cybersecurity risks. The team of cyber readiness 2.0 experts apply the CRI 2.0 to provide a compelling and actionable review of a country’s policies, plans, laws, standards, market levers (e.g., incentives and regulations), and other initiatives. The resulting actionable blueprint enables a country to better understand its Internet-infrastructure dependencies and vulnerabilities and assess its commitment and maturity to closing the gap between its current cyber security posture and the national cyber capabilities needed to support its digital future.

The CRI 2.0 uses over seventy unique indicators across seven essential elements to discern operationally ready activities and identify areas for improvement in the following elements: national strategy, incident response, e-crime and law enforcement, information sharing, investment in R&D, diplomacy and trade, and defense and crisis response. Each of these essential elements, if pursued in tandem, can help a country develop a stronger security posture to defend against economic erosion from cyber insecurity. Each area of inquiry is assessed across three cyber readiness levels: fully operational, partially operational, or insufficient evidence. The results are averaged to create an overall readiness assessment per country.

The threat to each country’s networked systems and infrastructures is real and growing. Data breaches, criminal activity, service disruptions, and property destruction are becoming commonplace. The resources available to increase the resilience of a country’s infrastructure and decrease the exposure of the countries to damage, however, are finite. The CRI 2.0 offers a comprehensive, comparative, experience-based methodology to help national leaders chart a path toward a safer, more resilient digital future in a deeply cybered, competitive, and conflict- prone world.

The CRI 2.0 is available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish and is being applied to 125 countries. While no country is cyber ready, there are countries that have developed effective mechanisms to achieve cyber readiness/preparedness and these programs and initiatives provide examples for other countries to learn from and possibly follow. As countries connect the next one to two billion people to the Internet and embrace next generation technologies, including the Internet of Things (IoT), the CRI 2.0 is a tool that can help identify and manage cybersecurity risks. The CRI 2.0 demonstrates how national security is closely intertwined with Internet connectivity and rapid adoption of ICT, which when secure, can lead to economic growth and prosperity.

 

Center For Revolutionary Scientific Thought (CReST)

The Center develops new ideas about the future directions of science and technology, formulates strategies on how to achieve revolutionary gains in that field, provides a forum to discuss the associated political, ethical, legal, and social issues, and informs the public and policymakers to solve vital societal problems."

 

Center for Adaptation and Innovation (CAI)

The Center for Adaptation and Innovation (CAI) identifies and defines new and potentially disruptive defense capabilities. CAI assists senior defense leaders grappling with the most demanding issues and problems posed by a complex and uncertain security environment.

 

Regulatory Science and Engineering Center (RSEC)

The vision of the Regulatory Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies is to always be the definitive source of information on developing and implementing regulatory policy based on science and technology. In order to achieve this primary objective, the mission of RSEC is to ensure its activities successfully achieve the following:

Build and maintain a comprehensive library of knowledge regarding the science behind making regulatory policy and the history that created the foundations of our current regulatory practices.
Create projects and opportunities that furthers the understanding (and application) of regulatory science and engineering.
Serve as a resource center for all individuals or organizations that attempt to practice regulatory science by establishing (and evolving) various tools and processes that can assist in the practice of using science and technology in developing regulatory policies (i.e. doing regulatory science).
Taken together, the basic mission of RSEC is to inform the field of regulatory science by communicating regulatory science and engineering to the public, and provide advice to government agencies, academia and industry about applying regulatory science and engineering practices to their development and implementation of regulatory policy.

 

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Prof. James Giordano, PhD, is Vice President for Academic Programs and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.  Prof. Giordano, a neuroscientist and neuroethicist, will be a featured speaker at the upcoming New York University Center for Bioethics 2012 Conference on "The Moral Brain." The event will be held from March 30-April 1 at NYU, and is free and open to the public. The program is jointly sponsored by the NYU Center for Bioethics, Duke Kenan Institute for Ethics, Yale Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics, and the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. Prof. Giordano will participate in a discussion entitled, "Can Moral Behavior Be Improved or Enhanced?" Click here for details.

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies' Center for Neurotechnology Studies was pleased to welcome guests to the CNS booth at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting, Neuroscience 2011,  in Washington, DC.  The annual SfN meeting attracts tens of thousands of professionals in neuroscience, medicine, and affiliated fields, and this year's event was no exception.    Click below to watch the video being shown in this year's CNS booth, in which CNS Director and Vice President for Academic Programs at the Potomac Institute, Prof. James Giordano, PhD, talks about the mission of CNS and the significance of the annual SfN meeting.

Prof. James Giordano, PhD, is Vice President for Academic Programs and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.  In a Letter to the Editor of The Chronicle of Higher Education, he writes about the limits of neurotechnology's applications in the prediction and prevention of violent or antisocial behavior.  Prof. Giordano writes that there is a public outcry for "science and technology to 'do something' to define, predict, and prevent violent social behavior."  But he warns that not only is the technology not fully up to the task, but the risks that it will be hijacked for political purposes remains high.  Click here to read the letter in full.

Prof. James Giordano, PhD, Vice President for Academic Programs and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, will give a series of lectures on neuroethics at the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Munich, Germany, during his tenure as 2011-2012 Fulbright Visiting Professor of Neurosciences and Neuroethics.  The five lectures will take place from November 2011 through February of 2012.  Please see the attachment, below, for details. Click here for more information on the Fulbright Scholar Program.

Prof. James Giordano, PhD, is Vice President for Academic Programs and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.  On October 20, he spoke at a conference entitled “Smart” Implants: Therapeutic Solutions, Security and Human Enhancements, sponsored by ICTethics and Gleube and held at the Wellcome Collection Conference Centre in London, UK.  Prof. Giordano addressed ways in which implantable neurotechnologies "offer unique potential to affect neuro-cognitive and behavioral functions, and are therefore promising approaches in mitigating the effects of certain neurological and psychiatric disorders."  He also addressed ethical considerations that arise in connection with the use of these technologies.  Click here for more information about the conference.

Prof. James Giordano, Vice President for Academic Programs and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, will be a guest speaker at the International Neuroethics Society's annual meeting in November, 2011.  The event will be held in Washington, DC on November 10 and 11.  Topics include include Neuroscience, National Security and Society; Technology and Humanity; Novel Treatments in Neuropsychiatry; and Law and Neuroscience. For more information, please click on the links below.

Prof. James Giordano, PhD, is a neuroscientist, Vice President for Academic Programs and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Prof. Giordano's new blog, NeuroBioEthics,  addresses current issues in neuroscience and complements CNS' mission to provide neutral, in-depth analysis of issues at the intersection of neurotechnology, neuroethics, and public policy. For more information about CNS, watch the video on this page. For more information about Prof. Giordano, click here.

Prof. James Giordano, PhD, is a neuroscientist, Vice President for Academic Programs and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Prof. Giordano Tweets on current events in neuroscience, neurotechnology and neuroethics, and you can follow his CNS Twitter feed @Neurobioethics. CNS' mission is to provide neutral, in-depth analysis of issues at the intersection of neurotechnology, neuroethics, and public policy. For more information about CNS, watch the video on this page. For more information about Prof. Giordano, click here.

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies' Center for Neurotechnology Studies will be at Booth 3111 at the Society for Neuroscience's Neuroscience 2011 conference at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC.  This year's event will be held from November 13-16.  Stop by and learn more about CNS programs and events! Click here to watch the CNS video.   

Prof. James Giordano, PhD, Vice President of Academic Programs and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, spoke on "Neuroethics: Moral Issues from Synapse to Society" at the Center for Inquiry in Amherst, New York, on December 9, 2010.  Click below to listen to parts one and two of Prof. Giordano's talk.

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{flv}Giordano2-Web Quicktime{/flv}  

The Capital Consortium for Neuroscience: Ethical, Legal and Social Issues (CCNELSI), www.ccnelsi.com,  was developed by Potomac Institute for Policy Studies Vice President for Academic Programs, Prof. James Giordano, PhD.  CCNELSI operates in conjunction with the Institute and its Center for Neurotechnology Studies as a forum for the exploration of emerging issues in neuroscience and accompanying ethical concerns. CCNELSI partners with area academic and research institutions to enrich the intellectual life of the DC and Northern Virginia communities. Lectures are held regularly at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Click below to watch a video in which Prof. Giordano explains CCNELSI's mission.

 

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies' Center for Neurotechnology Studies was proud to co-sponsor the third Neuroscience: Ethics, Legal and Social Issues (NELSI-3) Conference, held on February 25, 2011 at George Mason University.  The topic of the program was Ethical Issues in the Use of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology in National Defense.  Prof. James Giordano, PhD, Vice President for Academic Programs at the Potomac Institute and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies, chaired the conference.

Please click below to watch a video of the conference in its entirety, or scroll down to see a list of timeline indicators for  individual presentations.

{flv}NELSI-3{/flv}

1) Introduction by Prof. James Giordano, PhD: 00:11
2) Welcome by Prof. James Olds, PhD: 03:56
3) Opening Plenary: Towards the Neuro-Future: Challenges and Opportunities by James Canton, PhD: 17:24
4) Can (and Should?) We Regulate Neurosecurity? Lessons from the History of Science, the Military and Regulation by Prof. James Tabery, PhD: 56:38
5) Mind Wars: Brain Research and National Defense by Prof. Jonathan Moreno, PhD: 93:28
6) Hazards of Translation and Transformation: A Critique of Neuroscience in National Security from Science Studies, Ethics and Human Rights by Prof. Jonathan Marks, MA, BCL (Oxon): 130:05 
7) Neuroethics and National Security: The Promise and Peril of Neuroscience Technology, with a Hopeful Coda by LtCol William Casebeer, USAF, PhD: 158:39
8) The Human Dimension and US National Security: Our Current Challenge, But Greatest Opportunity by Chris Forsythe, PhD: 205:35
9) The Neuroethical Classification of Modifications to Body and Self by Prof. John Shook, PhD: 240:10
10) Neuroscience and Technology in National Security: Toward a Stance of Preparedness and Neuroethics of Prudent Action by Prof. James Giordano, PhD: 268:50
11) Panel Discussion: 304:40

 

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies' Center for Neurotechnology Studies was proud to co-sponsor the third Neuroscience: Ethics, Legal and Social Issues (NELSI-3) Conference, held on February 25, 2011 at George Mason University.  The topic of the program was Ethical Issues in the Use of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology in National Defense.  Prof. James Giordano, PhD, Vice President for Academic Programs at the Potomac Institute and Director of the Center for Neurotechnology Studies, chaired the conference.

Please click below to watch a video of the conference in its entirety, or scroll down to see a list of timeline indicators for  individual presentations.

{flv}NELSI-3{/flv}

1) Introduction by Prof. James Giordano, PhD: 00:11
2) Welcome by Prof. James Olds, PhD: 03:56
3) Opening Plenary: Towards the Neuro-Future: Challenges and Opportunities by James Canton, PhD: 17:24
4) Can (and Should?) We Regulate Neurosecurity? Lessons from the History of Science, the Military and Regulation by Prof. James Tabery, PhD: 56:38
5) Mind Wars: Brain Research and National Defense by Prof. Jonathan Moreno, PhD: 93:28
6) Hazards of Translation and Transformation: A Critique of Neuroscience in National Security from Science Studies, Ethics and Human Rights by Prof. Jonathan Marks, MA, BCL (Oxon): 130:05 
7) Neuroethics and National Security: The Promise and Peril of Neuroscience Technology, with a Hopeful Coda by LtCol William Casebeer, USAF, PhD: 158:39
8) The Human Dimension and US National Security: Our Current Challenge, But Greatest Opportunity by Chris Forsythe, PhD: 205:35
9) The Neuroethical Classification of Modifications to Body and Self by Prof. John Shook, PhD: 240:10
10) Neuroscience and Technology in National Security: Toward a Stance of Preparedness and Neuroethics of Prudent Action by Prof. James Giordano, PhD: 268:50
11) Panel Discussion: 304:40

 

 

The Capital Consortium for Neuroscience: Ethical, Legal and Social Issues (CCNELSI), www.ccnelsi.com,  was developed by Potomac Institute for Policy Studies Vice President of Academic Programs, Prof. James Giordano, PhD.  CCNELSI operates in conjunction with the Institute and its Center for Neurotechnology Studies as a forum for the exploration of emerging issues in neuroscience and accompanying ethical concerns. CCNELSI partners with area academic and research institutions to enrich the intellectual life of the DC and Northern Virginia communities. Click below to watch a video in which Prof. Giordano explains CCNELSI's mission.

SUMMARY: The number of children hospitalized with methicillin-resistant staph infections (MRSA) has surged 10-fold in recent years, a study found. Unlike previous findings, most infections were caught in the community, not in the hospital. Almost 30,000 children were hospitalized with MRSA infections at the hospitals studied during the 10-year period. Most had skin or muscle infections, and 374 youngsters with MRSA died, though it isn't clear if MRSA was the sole cause.
STORY LINK: http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5iRjX2lfHwiT-BJIbwtjFnIYiOYWwD9FOC0HG0

ANALYSIS:  The growth of MRSA as a community threat is further evidence of nature’s resiliency.  MRSA is a Staph skin infection, which generally starts as small red bumps resembling pimples, boils or spider bites.  These can quickly turn into deep, painful abscesses that require surgical draining.  MRSA bacteria spreads easily through cuts and abrasions and skin-to-skin contact.  Susceptibility includes those in hospitals or living in close quarters (nursing homes, dormitories, military barracks) and among athletes sharing razors, towels, uniforms or equipment.  Symptoms include redness, warmth and tenderness of the wound, pus (a yellowish-white fluid that may have a foul smell), and fever.  

Preventive steps include the classic recommendations:  wash often, shower after athletic events, wear shower shoes, do not share personal items, and check yourself for signs of unusual rashes.  Ask to have any skin infection tested for MRSA before starting antibiotic therapy. Some drugs that treat ordinary staph aren't effective against MRSA, and their use could lead to serious illness and more resistant bacteria.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: Two rural Georgians died last month from H1N1 influenza and despite the season, the virus is still circulating and health officials are still encouraging vaccination. Georgia is among several Southeast states to experience a spike in H1N1 hospitalizations earlier this year, most likely because the vaccination rates were the nation’s lowest.
STORY LINK: http://www.times-georgian.com/view/full_story/7394204/article-H1N1-kills-2-in-Paulding--vaccination-still-urged?instance=west_ga_news

ANALYSIS:  The unfortunate loss of two more Americans to H1N1 offers continuing proof of nature’s ability to afflict and of our own curious and costly penchant for allowing risk and not taking widely available and well proven precautions.  There is a lesson in the fact that, while the H1N1 pandemic has largely disappeared from public view and the media, people still fall victim to a disease than can be prevented by a safe and simple immunization.  While the report of the two recent cases does not indicate whether there was an underlying condition that contributed to either death, the fact remains that these individuals caught the flu from someone; it is still circulating.  

As a culture, we tend to place great faith in medicine’s ability to cure – and with good reason.  As a matter of individual and public health policy, however, reliance on cure over prevention can have dire consequences.  A recent study in Great Britain identified adverse reactions in almost half a population given prophylactic Oseltamivir (Tamilfu).  These reactions included nausea and vomiting, which can cause ceasing to take the medicine, thereby negating the preventive effect, or other serious health complications.  It is universally recognized that prevention is the best cure.  This is true for communicable disease, fire safety, school security, fiscal responsibility, ad infinitum…  Prevention only works, however, is we use the tools at our disposal.  Luck is not, and never will be, a reliable plan.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: The CDC said the outbreak of potentially deadly E. coli 0145 linked to tainted lettuce has expanded by four states. Last week, two companies issued a recall of bulk romaine lettuce, commonly used at salad bars, in 23 states. The FDA said it is investigating a Yuma, Az., farm where the lettuce was harvested, but determining the point in the supply chain where the contamination occurred is difficult because it was distributed to wholesale and food service outlets, and "salad bars in general have the potential for lots more contact with lots of hands and people."
STORY LINK: http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100511/ap_on_bi_ge/us_lettuce_recall

ANALYSIS:  Food safety remains a perpetual source of concern.  According to the CDC:  An estimated 76 million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States. The great majority of these cases are mild and cause symptoms for only a day or two.  Some cases are more serious; there are an estimated 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths related to foodborne diseases annually.  Like many diseases, the very old, the very young, pregnant women, and people with an illness that reduces their immune system function are at the most risk.

While it would be hard to reduce the risk of exposure at places like a salad bar, some basic principles can reduce the odds of contracting “food poisoning.”  The CDC offers the following advice.  Meat, poultry and eggs should be thoroughly cooked.  Avoid cross-contaminating foods by washing hands, utensils, and cutting boards after they have been in contact with raw meat or poultry and before they touch another food.  Put cooked meat on a clean platter, rather back on one that held the raw meat.  Refrigerate leftovers promptly.   Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables in running tap water to remove visible dirt and grime.  Remove and discard the outermost leaves of a head of lettuce or cabbage.  Wash your hands with soap and water before preparing food.  Avoid preparing food for others if you yourself have a diarrheal illness.  Changing a baby's diaper while preparing food is a bad idea that can easily spread illness.  Frequent hand washing is ALWAYS a good idea.  Finally, report suspected foodborne illnesses to your physician or local health department, especially if you think you may have become ill from a restaurant, community or church event, or other public venue.  Outbreak investigations begin with identification of the illness.  Your report can be the trigger for stopping an illness outbreak.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: An E. coli outbreak possibly linked to tainted lettuce has sickened at least 19 people in Ohio, New York and Michigan, including students on three college campuses, prompting a recall throughout much of the country. Twelve of those sickened were hospitalized, three with life-threatening symptoms, the FDA said. The CDC said it was looking at 10 other cases probably linked to the outbreak. Freshway Foods said the lettuce was sold to wholesalers, food service outlets, in-store salad bars and delis; and the recall also affects "grab and go" salads sold at Kroger, Giant Eagle, Ingles Markets and Marsh grocery stores.
STORY LINK: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/06/lettuce-recall-e-coli-pos_n_566956.html

ANALYSIS:
The convergence of convenience and technology has led to a seeming increase in the number of food-borne illness outbreaks in recent years.  Sources of food now span the globe and the concept of items available “in season” has subtly grown quaint.  As the production base and shipment channels have expanded, so too has the opportunity for contamination, typically at the source or in processing.  In some cases, such as the cited lettuce contamination, the source is relatively easy to identify.  In others, such as last year’s episode with salsa, the mystery can last for weeks and have a wide impact (many tomato farmers were forced to plow crops under, only to discover the source of the contamination was tainted jalapeños).

In this regard, folklore and your grandmother’s admonitions can serve you well.  Washing even pre-washed produce can reduce risk of contamination.  Conversely, undercooking can increase the risk of illness.  The CDC estimates that 76 million Americans get sick, more than 300,000 are hospitalized, and 5,000 people die from foodborne illnesses each year.

While there is nothing quite like that runny egg for breakfast or a juicy hamburger later in the day, it is important to understand how we expose ourselves to risk.  A wealth of information is available from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/food/index.htm.  Barbeque season is upon us, in all its glory.  Some simple precautions can make a world of difference.  A popular police television show always advised “be safe out there.”  It cannot be said any better than that.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

This week offers one of those rare opportunities to write in the first person.  Presented with a question from the editor whether any “strange new diseases” were afoot, my answer is, thankfully, no.  This does not mean, however, there is nothing of note.  As warmer weather embraces the nation, outdoor activities increase.  The coughs and sniffles of flu season give way to mosquito bites, stinging insects, deer ticks with Lyme, and similar concerns.  The nature of life is there is always something that presents risk.  The repeated mantra of awareness and preparedness for the unexpected remains applicable.  

I am also inclined to comment on two recent events that are likely addressed elsewhere within these pages.  Not related to communicable illness or each other, they none-the-less underscore the need for vigilance.  The University of Virginia suffered the tragic loss of a promising, and some might say privileged, young life to what would appear in essence a domestic disturbance.  In New York’s Times Square, a larger tragedy was averted by alert citizenry and law enforcement.  The common thread is that workplace and other violence can intrude anywhere, from a refined and historic academic environment to a bustling urban tourist center.  Communicable illness similarly knows no boundaries.  Those of a certain age will recall Alan Funt ending his Candid Camera shows with the advisement:  “Someday, somewhere, when you least expect it…”  Disasters lurk in the same manner.  The question is, will you be caught by surprise?

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: Illnesses and infections once considered safely eradicated could soon make a dangerous comeback if Americans continue to misuse antibiotic drugs.
STORY LINK: http://www.aolnews.com/health/article/antibiotic-resistance-growing-as-us-health-risk/19454589

ANALYSIS:  Drug resistant illnesses have been gradually growing as a serious threat to humankind.  Analysis from the 2007 World Health Report shows how rapidly an effective tool can become useless:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source:  World Health Organization

The causes are many, including nature’s own ability to adapt.  Humans contribute by demanding and taking antibiotics for viral conditions or not completing the prescribed course of treatment when antibiotics are appropriate.  A similar phenomenon exists with anti-virals.  Viruses naturally adapt to overcome threats.  The indiscriminate use of anti-virals hastens the day when they will be ineffective.

At various points in recent history a black market in certain medicines has arisen.  Cipro and Doxycycline were in demand and had “street value” following the 2001 postal anthrax attacks.  Similar demand for Tamiflu developed during the past year’s H1N1 outbreak.  Uncontrolled use can have unintended consequences.  Simply stated, following physician’s orders can help slow this trend.  While science continues to pursue the next generation of cure, it must be recognized that the advances of the last century were remarkable.  Reducing exposure, getting vaccinated when possible, and using antibiotics and anti-virals as directed are steps that can be taken today.  Prevention works; hoping for a cure may not.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: The virulent fungus strain that has killed 1 in 4 people infected in Oregon is also present in Washington and Idaho and is likely to spread into California, according to researchers at Duke University Medical Center. The fungus, which is found on trees and the surrounding soil, releases deadly spores that can be easily inhaled. Previously limited to tropical and subtropical areas of the world, Cryptococcus gattii likely is spreading because of climate change. While there is treatment, there is no vaccine available. Most at risk are those who have frequent contact with soil.
STORY LINK: http://www.smartplanet.com/technology/blog/science-scope/deadly-airborne-fungi-in-oregon-expected-to-spread-to-california/1317/

ANALYSIS:  The impact of globalization has been profound.  Billions of people now travel all over the world, enjoying different cultures, visiting historic sites, and interacting as never before.  Foods that were once considered seasonal are now available year round.  And dangers once isolated by distance can travel to new, vulnerable locations.  International travelers routinely are reminded of restrictions on carrying plants, foodstuff, or animals.  Less evident may be fungus, insects, or other dangers not visible to the naked eye.  

There are basic steps that can be taken to limit exposure to dangers such as this.  One is to have “situational awareness.”  Know what threats lie in waiting, be it Cryptococcus gattii, poison ivy, or rattlesnakes.  When working with soil or plant life, be vigilant in washing yourself, your clothing, footwear, and even cars, ATVs, or bicycles.  Inspect yourself for exposures, especially small pest that may be hard to detect, such as the Lyme-carrying deer tick.  When visiting an area known or suspected to contain an environmental threat, know the symptoms for which to watch.  When in doubt, seek medical advice.  The old saw applies:  it is better to be safe than sorry.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: At the one-year mark since the emergence of novel H1N1 influenza, CIDRAP News reviewed the lessons of the pandemic. Chief among them: the endless unpredictability of flu viruses. Unlike seasonal flu, H1N1 hit children and young adults much more than people over 65; it was relatively mild for most people, unlike the 1918 flu or devastating H5N1 avian flu which heavily shaped pandemic preparations; but it killed far more children and young people than typical seasonal flu and brought the first hint that obesity is a risk factor for severe complications.
STORY LINK: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/swineflu/news/apr2310pandemic-jw.html

ANALYSIS:  It is likely that analysis of the H1N1 pandemic – what went wrong, what went right, and why we fared so well – will continue well into the future.  Several things should be immediately clear, however, and should drive continuing policy development and preparation.  An enduring lesson is that nature is highly adaptable.  Many of the standard recommendations for influenza proved to be less than optimal for this strain.  That H1N1 was milder than feared was fortunate.  A similar, rapid human-to-human spread of H5N1 would have profound global impact -- half of all cases to date have been fatal.

Family and workplace planning should emphasize staying healthy and reacting to the unexpected.  The now familiar exhortations about hand washing, cough etiquette, and cleaning common surfaces remain valid.  Similarly, creating an environment where illness is viewed as natural with interpersonal contact limited until after recovery will actually reduce overall sick time.  As we learned with SARS, the next health threat may not be what we expect.  The time to address gaps in planning and practice is now, when the need is not urgent.  The next outbreak may not be so kind.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: Airline passengers are also susceptible to the spread of norovirus, best known for causing diarrhea and vomiting on board cruise ships, researchers have found. CDC investigators tracked an October 2008 outbreak of the acute gastrointestinal illness back to a flight returning tourists to California from a New England fall foliage bus tour. Sitting in an aisle seat or near a tour group member were strong risk factors for becoming ill, which suggests transmission of the virus occurred through person-to-person contact or indirectly via contamination of armrests, tray tables, or seat controls.
STORY LINK: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36568257/ns/travel-news/

ANALYSIS:   Anyone who has endured a bout with norovirus can attest it is neither pleasant nor do you have to be on a cruise ship to get infected.  Sometimes known by the misnomer “stomach flu” -- this virus is not related to influenza – this disease causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and some stomach cramping and typically lasts for one to two days.  Highly contagious, norovirus is easily spread in places where people are in close, prolonged contact such as cruise ships.  Schools, nursing homes, and airplanes are also venues for transmission.

While it is impossible to totally prevent transmission, many of the tried and true admonishments can reduce the change of becoming ill:  wash your hands often, ensure frequent hand washing by food service workers and servers, and allow – insist even – that those who show symptoms of this disease stay home or away from others.  When incidents of norovisus illness are identified, cruise operators have implemented supplemental cleaning of common use areas (kitchens, bathrooms, elevators) and surfaces (telephones, doorbells and knobs). This is a prudent measure, at work and at home, for norovirus, influenza, and many other communicable diseases.  CDC recommends these steps for dealing with norovirus:
•    Frequently wash your hands, especially after toilet visits and changing diapers and before eating or preparing food.
•    Carefully wash fruits and vegetables, and steam oysters before eating them.
•    Thoroughly clean and disinfect contaminated surfaces immediately after an episode of illness by using a bleach-based household cleaner.
•    Immediately remove and wash clothing or linens that may be contaminated with virus after an episode of illness (use hot water and soap).
•    Flush or discard any vomitus and/or stool in the toilet and make sure that the surrounding area is kept clean.
•    Persons who are infected with norovirus should not prepare food while they have symptoms and for at least 2-3 days after they recover from their illness.
•    Food that may have been contaminated by an ill person should be disposed of properly.
A heightened sense of awareness, sensitivity to reducing the rick of spread, and – perhaps most importantly – creating a culture where prevention and common response are routine are keys to avoiding this and other most unpleasant illnesses.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: A health official said he let a Washington state daycare center remain open for several days after children were hospitalized with a deadly strain of E. coli because of concerns the infection would spread farther if parents took their children elsewhere. A 4-year-old boy died after being infected at the daycare center and three other children were sickened.
STORY LINK: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36349575/ns/health/

ANALYSIS:  Without knowing the specific details of this outbreak, it would be imprudent to speculate on what appears, on surface value, to be a public health decision that places children at risk.  This incident focuses attention on one of the many possible and practical reactions to a disease outbreak.  Until the source and means of transmission of a disease are identified, hasty reactions may actually worsen the situation.  For example, closing a high school in the face of an influenza outbreak may be appropriate.  If many of the parents are working or otherwise not home and a shopping mall is nearby, teenagers will tend to become restless and congregate, thereby not only negating the preventive measure of school closing but also exposing a far wider population.  Understanding the optimal course of action often requires many “what if” considerations and prior planning.  We typically defer disaster planning and practice, at times at our own peril.  A risk analysis, the beginning of prevention and response planning, and creating a knowledgeable and resilient workforce, community, or family are first steps in avoiding disaster.  “Every crisis is a human crisis” assumes tremendous meaning when you are that human.

SUMMARY: A study by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Tokyo showed that wild ducks could be spreading the H5N1 virus far and wide. Satellites tracked migrating northern pintail ducks from a bird flu-infected marsh in Japan to nesting areas in Russia. The ducks did not necessarily carry the virus, but the species can be infected with H5N1 with no ill effects. H5N1 has been circulating in Asia and the Middle East, with occasional outbreaks in Europe, since 2003. Alaska is thought to be the most likely place for it to enter the Americas.
STORY LINK: http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/wireStory?id=10357061

ANALYSIS:  The nature of science is to seek empirical proof of what we know intuitively.  Disease must be communicated – carried and delivered by someone or something – to be communicable.  The source of avian flu is, as the name suggests, birds.  It makes sense that when that source, what is termed the “reservoir”, travels so too does the disease.  When West Nile virus first appeared in New York City in 1999, it was not the human victims who facilitated identification of the disease but rather the unusually large number of birds dying in the region.  Whether human or animal transmission, the fact that disease can be spread is the relevant issue.  Once pandemic influenza falls out of the media spotlight, it also tends to lose our attention.  The basic preventive and planning measures stressed over the past year – frequent hand washing, cough etiquette, immunization, monitoring travel, responsive sick leave policies, and a well-rehearsed and familiar disaster plan – remain highly relevant.  Illness and disasters may never be prevented, but their impact can be minimized through a culture of preparedness.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: While the number of H1N1 deaths in the U.S. was comparable to a bad seasonal flu in 2009, swine flu claimed three times as many years of life because the victims were so young. While seasonal flu victims’ average age is 76, the average age of people killed by swine flu was 37. Using the average life expectancy of H1N1 victims, researchers calculated that the U.S. lost nearly 2 million years of life -- more than in the 1968 pandemic.
STORY LINK: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20627545.000-swine-flu-no-big-deal-look-at-years-of-life-lost.html

ANALYSIS:
Media, social networking, and even scientific publications have recently entertained the strange notion that H1N1 was a minor event and that public health and other officials overreacted in response to this disease.  That more than 12,000 Americans died from flu-related causes could hardly be considered minor.  Factor in that many of these victims were young – some 1800, 15 percent, were children – and the scope borders on tragic.  According to the CDC, only 20 percent of Americans were vaccinated against H1N1, with health workers reporting a 37 percent vaccination rate.  As previously stated, one of the first steps toward reducing risk is recognizing when this is possible.  Those who minimize the potential of an influenza pandemic run the risk of being caught by surprise.  While this time was mild by comparison (a fact we see only in hindsight), the next time may not be.  The problem is we have no way of knowing beforehand.  Lack of awareness precludes preparedness, which in turn tempts disaster.  This is an invitation best left unsent.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

SUMMARY: A study by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found company affiliation to be the greatest driver of farm-to-farm avian flu transmission risk. Typical multiple-farm contacts included workers, feed distributors, waste handlers and social contacts. The researchers used the model to analyze how an outbreak of H5N1 at a single farm on the Delaware-Maryland peninsula might spread through the poultry farm-dense region.
STORY LINK: http://gazette.jhu.edu/2010/04/05/biz-affiliation-could-increase-risk-of-transmission-of-avian-flu/

ANALYSIS:
The cited study examined how disease spreads in a region with a concentration of poultry farms that are a major economic presence.  Incidents of avian flu are particularly damaging to this industry because practice is to destroy infected flocks.  While the specific focus of this study was chicken farms, the applicability to other businesses, communities, and families is significant.  Communicable disease is spread by various means:  person to person, by vectors such as fleas or mosquitoes, and environmentally.  Understanding the patterns of travel and interactions of your employees or family members can be a meaningful tool in limiting potential exposure.  When is it appropriate to limit movement or contact?  Conversely, needless restrictions can have an adverse impact on the ability to conduct business.  Too often, decisions are based on emotional reaction versus a sound analysis of the potential danger.  Opting too far in either direction can have dire consequences.  An accurate risk assessment is a core characteristic of a Culture of Preparedness.  Understanding exposure is the first step toward reducing risk.  Reducing risk builds resiliency, an attribute that will keep you in business when the unexpected occurs.

- Donald A. Donahue, DHEd, Executive Director, Center for Health Policy and Preparedness

ICTS Books

In this breakthrough book, General Al Gray and Dr. Paul Otte provide a new model for achieving a higher level of leadership. This book validates the struggles of the Conflicted Leader – one who must lead individuals and organizations as our world moves through ever-evolving waves of change. But, the authors do more than address what many leaders today are experiencing. They propose a new way of making a difference though Vantage Leadership, defined as the ability to embrace uncertainty, see the possible over the probable, remain conceptual through conflict, and more.

“If you only look for leadership in the usual places, you will only find the usual leadership.”

FrontCoverOtte800web


PRAISE FOR

The Conflicted Leader and Vantage Leadership

“In 1989, the U.S. Marine Corps promulgated a small book entitled Warfighting for all Marines. The intent was to describe General Al Gray’s philosophy on warfighting and to encourage leaders at all levels to use the Maneuver Warfare concepts and values as a way of thinking to meet the challenges of both combat and life. Now General Gray and Dr. Paul Otte have taken these principles and applied them to the everyday challenges of leadership in a complex and uncertain world.  Understanding and using the concepts in this book will serve well all who aspire to lead and succeed at any level”

– Brent Scowcroft
Air Force Lt. General (Ret) and former National Security Advisor to President Gerald Ford and President George H.W. Bush

“General Al Gray’s leadership profoundly changed the US Marine Corps, US policy, and the way the US Military fights today in hundreds of ways. His unique form of leadership inspires all who come in contact with him. General Gray and Dr. Paul Otte have successfully outlined these principles of leadership in a fashion that will continue to inspire and guide people for generations to come.”

– Michael S. Swetnam
CEO and Chairman
Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

The Conflicted Leader and Vantage Leadership provides a fresh perspective to the study of leadership, providing a basis for developing leadership concepts, ideas, and ideals that apply to you. This book is a “must read” for the serious student of leadership.

– Robert L. Bailey
Retired CEO, Chairman and President – State Auto Insurance Companies
Author of “Plain Talk About Leadership”

“The Marine Warfighting philosophy published by General Gray in 1989 contains concepts, values, and wisdom that helped transform the Marine Corps. Now, General Gray and his writing partner Dr. Paul Otte have captured these thoughts in a superb book. If you want to know why the Marines win – read this. You can us the same principles in your in your business or professional life.”

– David C. Miller, Jr.
Ambassador of the United Sates (Retired) 
and former Special Assistant to President George H. W. Bush

“General Gray and Dr. Otte have advanced significantly the discourse on leadership for our modern age. Happily, one will not find in this work any endorsement of manipulative leadership so in evidence today, with its reliance on testing issues and words through focus groups before positions are articulated and ‘leadership’ is sounded through a false trumpet.”

– Norman G. Mosher, Capt, USN (Retired)
and former Professional Staff Member,
United States Senate Committee on Armed Services

“We owe General Gray and Dr. Otte great thanks for bringing us a very clear and convincing description of the U.S. Marine Corps’ extraordinary success in creating leaders and a culture of leadership throughout the organization. The military genuinely believes there is potential in most people. It is that profound belief that allows them to fully develop everyone’s potential.”

– Judith M. Bardwick
Author of “Danger in the Comfort Zone” and “In Praise of Good Business” 

 IslamicStateFlyer Page 1

 IslamicStateFlyer Page 2

The Potomac Institute Press is pleased to announce the latest book by Institute Chairman and CEO Michael Swetnam and ICTS Director Prof. Yonah Alexander, Al-Qa'ida: Ten Years After 9/11 and Beyond (Potomac Institute Press, 2012, ISBN: 978-0-9678594-6-0 Paperback, 454 pages).  Orders for Al-Qa'ida, Ten Years After and Beyond may be placed through Amazon.com.  Click here to access the Amazon listing.

Al-Qa'ida: Ten Years After 9/11 and Beyond follows the authors' 2001 book, Usama bin Laden's al-Qa'ida: Profile of a Terrorist Network, which came out just months before the 9/11 attacks.  The new volume offers comprehensive coverage of the group’s history, leadership, financing, propaganda, ideology, and  future outlook.

click here to purchase

 

Here's what prominent scholars are saying about Al-Qa'ida: Ten Years After 9/11 and Beyond:

“This is the indispensable book on al-Qa’ida, its spawn, and its affiliates.  Usama and many of his lieutenants have been killed, and the central “base” weakened. But radical Islam and sundry jihadi organizations live.  Yonah Alexander and Michael S. Swetnam have been writing about al-Qa’ida since 1988; they have not lost their touch.”  Don Wallace, Jr., Professor of Law at Georgetown University and Chairman of the International Law Institute.

“This comprehensive book on al-Qa’ida, its evolution, current status, ideology, modus operandi, and its affiliates provides an excellent source for both experts and those who want to learn about this organization and the challenges posed by international terrorism in general.” Shireen Hunter, Visiting Professor, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, and Distinguished Scholar, Center for Strategic and International Studies.

“Few experts on ‘jihadi’ terrorism can write with more authority on the past ten years of al-Qa’ida after 9/11 than Yonah Alexander and his colleague, Michael S. Swetnam.  Many things have happened in these ten years; 2011 was an important year just like 2001.  To understand what is likely to happen in the future, this book is a must read for both experts and all those interested in world peace.” Honorary Professor Ved Marwah, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi; Chairman, India’s Task Force on National Security and Criminal Justice System; Former Commissioner of Police Delhi; and Former Governor of Manipur and Jharkhand.

“Many books have been written on al-Qa’ida, but this comprehensive volume details not only the group’s origin and background, but also its evolution into the present. Yonah Alexander and Michael S. Swetnam have produced a much needed, up-to-date handbook on al-Qa’ida and its affiliated groups. An excellent source for all those who study or combat contemporary terrorism.” Michael Fredholm, Senior Researcher, Stockholm International Program for Central Asian Studies (SIPCAS), Stockholm University, Sweden.

“This book, produced from the pens of scholars that have been wrestling with the issues for decades, should come as a timely reminder that we might want to get back to business as usual but that the likes of al-Qa’ida won’t forget us.”  William J. Olson, Distinguished Professor, National Defense University.

Authors:

Yonah Alexander, PhD
Director, Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies
Director, International Center for Terrorism Studies, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Arlington, VA, USA
Co-Director, Inter-University Center for Legal Studies at the International Law Institute, Washington, DC, USA

Michael S. Swetnam

CEO and Chairman, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Arlington, VA, USA
Member, US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Technical Advisory Group
Former Special Consultant to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Washington, DC, USA

 

Table of Contents:

Introduction by Charles E. Allen
Chapter 1: Ideological and Theological Perspectives
and Goals
Chapter 2: Key Leadership
Chapter 3: Selected Modus Operandi
Chapter 4: Propaganda and Psychological Warfare
Chapter 5: Al-Qai’da’s Key Networks
Chapter 6: Selected Affiliated Groups
Chapter 7: Selected U.S. Individuals with Alleged
al-Qa’ida Connections
Chapter 8: Operation Neptune Spear and Beyond
Appendices
• Selected Electronic Political Communication from
al-Qa’ida (October 2001 – 2011)
• U.S. Indictment of Usama bin Laden (November 5, 1998)
• Remarks by the President on Osama bin Laden
(May 2, 2011)
• Ensuring al-Qa’ida’s Demise (Remarks by John Brennan
on June 29, 2011)
• National Strategy for Counterterrorism (June 2011)
• Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent
Extremism in the United States (August 2011)
• The Honorable James R. Clapper, Statement
• David H. Petraeus, Director of CIA, Statement

terrorBy Yonah Alexander and Tyler B. Richardson

Terror on the High Seas: From Piracy to Strategic Challenge is a provocative look at maritime security and the steps that must be taken if terrorist threats are to be nullified. From the Achille Lauro hijacking to the bombing of the USS Cole to attacks on shipping channels by Somali pirates, terrorists have employed a variety of tactics, both successful and unsuccessful. These have included the smuggling of arms and plots to bomb shipyards, as well as attacks on Merchant Marine ships, maritime offices, fuel storage facilities, and Navy personnel, ships, and facilities, both on shore and in port.

 This book constitutes the first research effort after the unprecedented attacks of September 11, 2001, to provide government, industry, and the academic and policy communities with a major resource on potential threats to the maritime environment. Assuming that past tactics, as well as a variety of other unconventional attacks, will be utilized by both domestic and international groups well into the 21st century, the book sagely outlines the response needed from government and industry to meet the coming challenges.

"Professor Yonah Alexander and Tyler Richardson have written and compiled an outstanding and comprehensive review of piracy and terrorism at sea, an essential tool by anyone desiring to understand and fight this timeless, and yet modern day, threat to public safety, international security and commerce.  They have constituted this book to provide governmental leaders, policy makers, academicians, law enforcement officials, and the maritime industry, with the body of knowledge, easily accessible, to achieve the deep understanding of where we are in addressing terror on the high seas, the indispensable prerequisite for charting the future through pirate-infested waters."
- Jamie Barnett, Rear Admiral USNR (Retired), Director of Naval Education & Training from 2004-2006

YONAH ALEXANDER is a Senior Fellow and Director of the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies based at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies and the International Law Institute. He has published over 95 books in the field of international terrorism including The New Iranian Leadership: Ahmadinejad, Nuclear Ambition and the Middle East; Evolution of U.S. Counterterrorism Policy: A Documentary Collection (3 Vols.); and Turkey: Terrorism, Civil Rights, and the European Union.  TYLER RICHARDSON has served as the Director of Research for the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies and as Defense Fellow for the Long-Term Strategy Project, both in Washington, DC.  His work on maritime terrorism and port security issues has been published by The Washington Times, United Press International, The Jerusalem Post and The Lexington Institute.  Mr. Richardson holds a B.A. in English from Georgetown University and an MBA from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  He currently works as a Senior Analyst in North Carolina. 
 
Publication date:  September 2009;  ISBN: 0-275-99750-2 (Two volumes, 660 pgs.)
$195.00  U.S. Dollars £134.95 Sterling

20% Pre Publication Discount  $156.00 U.S. Dollars; £107.95 Sterling

To order outside the US or for more information please contact:
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The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies is an independent, 501(c)(3), not-for-profit public policy research institute. The Institute identifies and aggressively shepherds discussion on key science and technology issues facing our society. From these discussions and forums, we develop meaningful science and technology policy options and ensure their implementation at the intersection of business and government.

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