Michael Swetnam assisted in founding the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies in 1994. Since its inception, he has served as Chairman of the Board and currently serves as the Institute's Chief Executive Officer.
He has authored and edited several books and articles including: "Al-Qa'ida: Ten Years After 9/11 and Beyond," co-authored with Yonah Alexander; "Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare," a four volume set he co-edited; "Usama bin Laden's al-Qaida: Profile of a Terrorist Network," co-authored with Yonah Alexander; "ETA: Profile of a Terrorist Group," co-authored with Yonah Alexander and Herbert M. Levine; and "Best Available Science: Its Evolution, Taxonomy, and Application," co-authored with Dennis K. McBride, A. Alan Moghissi, Betty R. Love and Sorin R. Straja.
Mr. Swetnam is currently a member of the Technical Advisory Group to the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. In this capacity, he provides expert advice to the U.S. Senate on the R&D investment strategy of the U.S. Intelligence Community. He also served on the Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Counterterrorism and the Task Force on Intelligence Support to the War on Terrorism.
From 1990 to 1992, Mr. Swetnam served as a Special Consultant to President Bush's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) where he provided expert advice on Intelligence Community issues including budget, community architecture, and major programs. He also assisted in authoring the Board's assessment of Intelligence Community support to Desert Storm/Shield.
Prior to forming the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Mr. Swetnam worked in private industry as a Vice President of Engineering at the Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation, Director of Information Processing Systems at GTE, and Manager of Strategic Planning for GTE Government Systems.
Prior to joining GTE, he worked for the Director of Central Intelligence as a Program Monitor on the Intelligence Community Staff (1986-1990). He was responsible for the development and presentation to Congress of the budget of the National Security Agency, and helped develop, monitor and present to Congress the DOE Intelligence Budget. Mr. Swetnam was also assigned as the IC Staff representative to intergovernmental groups that developed the INF and START treaties. He assisted in presenting these treaties to Congress for ratification. Collateral duties included serving as the host to the DCI's Nuclear Intelligence Panel and Co-Chairman of the S&T Requirements Analysis Working Group.
Mr. Swetnam served in the U.S. Navy for 24 years as an active duty and reserve officer, Special Duty Cryptology. He has served in several public and community positions including Northern United Kingdom Scout Master (1984-85); Chairman, Term limits Referendum Committee (1992-93); President (1993) of the Montgomery County Corporate Volunteer Council, Montgomery County Corporate Partnership for Managerial Excellence (1993); and the Maryland Business Roundtable (1993). He is also on the Board of Directors of Space and Defense Systems Inc., Dragon Hawk Entertainment Inc., and the Governing Board of The Potomac Institute of New Zealand.
General Al Gray, USMC (Ret) serves as Chairman of the Board of Regents; Member of the Board of Directors; and Senior Fellow of the Potomac Institute of Policy Studies (PIPS).
General Gray has served as Board Chairman and CEO for several public and private companies and has consulted to United States and international industry and government. General Gray’s other duties have included service on the Defense Science Board; the Defense Special Operations Advisory Group; the National Security Agency Science Advisory Board; the National Reconnaissance Office Gold Team; the Defense Operations Support Office Advisory Team; and as Director of the Advanced Concept Demonstration Technology for Combat in the Littorals. Consistent with his interest in education and helping servicemen and women, he is trustee Emeritus of Norwich University, past trustee on Monmouth University, past member of the National Defense University Board of Visitors and is Chairman Emeritus of American Military University. He is Chairman Emeritus of The Injured Marine Semper Fi Fund and the America Fund, having served over ten years, to help take care of wounded veterans and their families. General Gray currently serves as Chancellor of The Marine Military Academy, Chairman of the US Marine Youth Foundation, and as a Trustee of the American Public University System. In 1991, Al Gray retired after 41 years of service to the United States Marine Corps. From 1987-1991, General Gray served as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was the 29th Commandant of the Marine Corps, and was advisor to both Presidents Reagan and George H. W. Bush. As Commandant, he instituted and published a Warfighting Philosophy for Marines based on the Maneuver Warfare Thought Process. General Gray developed and implemented a new long-range strategic planning process for the Marine Corps, established the Marine Corps University, and implemented other longstanding changes, such as ensuring that every Marine is a rifleman first and that the Marine Corps was Special Operations Capable.
General Gray enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1950 and achieved the rank of Sergeant while serving in amphibious reconnaissance with Fleet Marine Force, Pacific aboard the submarine USS Perch (ASSP-313). He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in 1952. In the early years, he held extensive assignments overseas in the Far East and Southeast Asia in infantry, artillery, intelligence, communications and special operations. He has held every infantry command assignment from platoon commander through Division Commander and has commanded every Marine Air Ground Task Force from Marine Corps Expeditionary Unit to Marine Expedition Force. Among his awards are two Defense Distinguished Service Medals, two Navy Distinguished Service Medals, Distinguished Service Medals from the US Army, the US Air Force and the US Coast Guard, the Silver Star Medal, two Legion of Merits with Combat "V", four Bronze Star Medals with Combat "V", thee Purple Hearts, three Joint Commendation Medals, the Meritorious Service Medal, the Navy Commendation Medal, the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm and Star, as well as foreign awards from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Korea and The Netherlands. General Gray holds a B.S. from the University of the State of New York. He also attended Lafayette College, the Marine Corps Command and Staff College and the Army War College. General Gray is the recipient of two honorary Doctor of Law degrees, one from Lafayette College and the other from Monmouth University, and was awarded a Doctor of Military Science from Norwich University. He was the first awardee of an Honorary Doctorate of Strategic Intelligence degree from the Defense Intelligence College (now the Joint Military Intelligence College), and also was awarded an Honorary Doctorate for Leadership from the Franklin University, and an Honorary Doctorate from the American Public University System.
Tom O'Leary is Executive Vice President and COO of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. He retired from the Marine Corps in 2001. In July of 2001, he joined the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies as a Senior Research Fellow and was subsequently detailed as an IPA from Potomac Institute to the Department of Navy. While an IPA, he served as the first Program Manager for the Littoral Combat Future Naval Capabilities program, then as the Director, Expeditionary Warfare Operations Technology Division, Office of Naval Research, and finally as Technical Director, Marine Corps Warfighting Lab. As a Marine, he served in a variety of service and joint command and staff assignments. He participated in several operations to include the Multi-National Peace-Keeping Force, Beirut; Operation Snowcap; Operation Desert Shield; Operation Desert Storm; Operation Sea Angel; and Operation Restore Hope. He also participated in the Marine Corps' Advanced Warfighting Experiments (AWE) Hunter Warrior and Urban Warrior. Upon retiring from the Marine Corps, he joined the Institute for Defense Analyses as a Research Staff Member where he was the Task Leader for the Joint Study on Effects Based Operations. Mr. O'Leary holds a Bachelor of Science Degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology, a Master of Science Degree from the University of Southern California, and a Master of Arts Degree from the Naval War College.
Gary Sojka is a partner of The Potomac Advocates, a Washington, D.C. consulting firm. He concentrates on a wide array of issues related to technology and government policy. Prior to this move into the consulting world, Mr. Sojka served as a professional staff member of the U.S. Senate for eight years, including positions on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Armed Services Committee. From 1992 to 1994 he held the position of Deputy to the Minority Staff Director on the Intelligence Committee. Mr. Sojka also has vast experience with strategic defense and intelligence, having acted as a defense analyst for both the Defense Intelligence Agency and the Office of Naval Intelligence.
Howard Schue is a Partner and Executive Vice President of Technology Strategies and Alliances Corporation specializing in line and marketing management, new business development, and strategic planning in the aerospace/defense and the command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I) industries. Mr. Schue served on the 1993 Defense Science Board Summer Study on Global Surveillance and on the 1994 Summer Study on Information Architecture for the Battlefield. He is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, the National Military Intelligence Association, the American Society of Military Comptrollers, the Air Force Association, the Association of Old Crows, the Reserve Officers Association, the Air War College Alumni Association, the Planetary Society, the West Point Association of Graduates, and the Army Athletic Association.
Lyle Ashton Cox, Jr. is Chief Scientist of Information Manufacturing Corporation. He has over thirty years of experience in high performance information systems in a wide variety of application environments. He has held a number of senior positions in information technology enterprises, including: MASINT Chair Research Professor, Naval Postgraduate School; Chief Architect, United States Measurement and Signature Intelligence System, Defense Intelligence Agency; Vice President, Corporate Development, Analytic Services Incorporated; Vice President and Chief Technical Officer, Science Applications International Corporation's Technology Applications Sector; Deputy Group Manager of Digital Equipment Corporation's Government Systems Group; Assistant Director, White House Office of Planning and Evaluation; and Director of the National Security Council Crisis Management System. Dr. Cox served in the United States Navy, rising to the rank of Captain. He also served as consultant to several state and local law enforcement agencies, lecturer (with rank of full professor) at George Washington University, and member of NASA's Advisory Committee on the International Space Station. He currently serves on the Board of Advisors of Potomac State College. Dr. Cox earned a Ph.D. in Computing Science at the University of California, and has also earned degrees in engineering, law, and astronomy. Dr. Cox is an active member of the Chickasaw Nation.
Gail G. Clifford, CPA, MBA, CGMA
Ms. Clifford is the Vice President for Financial Management & Chief Financial Officer at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. She is also a member of the Board of Directors. She has over 33 years of accounting, finance and management experience and has worked in various industries including insurance, government contracting, and non-profit.
Ms. Clifford joined the Potomac Institute in 2001 as Chief Financial Officer. She is responsible for all phases of financial and accounting management including: planning, billing, banking relationships, and accounting practices through appraisals of the organization’s financial position and monthly financial and operating reports. She previously held financial positions with the International Science and Technology Institute, Lance Bailey and Associates, and B.L. Seamon & Associates, Inc. Ms. Clifford graduated with honors from the University of the West Indies, Trinidad, with a B.S. in Business Management. She has a Master of Business Administration (MBA) from the Johns Hopkins University, and is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA), and a Chartered Global Management Accountant (CGMA).
Ms. Clifford is a member of the Maryland Association of Certified Public Accountants. She is also a member the National Association of Female Executives (NAFE), the National Association of Black Accountants (NABA), and the National Association of Professional Women (NAPW).