Robert Hummel, PhD


STEPS, Editor-in-Chief

Chief Scientist, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

Rubert Hummel PhDDr. Robert Hummel serves as the Chief Scientist of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies in the Science and Technology Policy Division and is a member of the Center for Revolutionary Scientific Thought. He is the author of the Potomac Institute book, Alternative Futures for Corrosion and Degradation Research and is also serving customers in DARPA and OSD. He is the principal author of the Institute’s forthcoming book on machine intelligence. Prior to joining the Potomac Institute, he served as a program manager at DARPA for nearly nine years, managing and initiating projects in information exploitation, computer science, and sensor design. Prior to joining DARPA, he was a tenured faculty member at NYU’s Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in the Computer Science Department, where he did research in computer vision and artificial intelligence. Dr. Hummel earned his PhD in mathematics from the University of Minnesota, and he holds a B.A., also in mathematics, from the University of Chicago.

Timothy W. Bumpus, PhD

STEPS, Associate Editor

Research Associate, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

TBumpusDr. Timothy Bumpus received his PhD in chemical biology from Cornell University where, as a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow, he designed and implemented new chemical tools to study lipid centric cell signaling processes. Prior to Cornell, Dr. Bumpus attended Luther College where he received his B.A., majoring in chemistry, biology, and mathematics. He now brings his diverse scientific expertise to bear on the many, varied science and technology policy issues facing the country as part of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies’ research staff.

Jennifer Buss, PhD


Jennifer Buss, PhD
Chief Executive Officer, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

Dr. Jennifer Buss serves as the CEO of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. The Institute develops meaningful science and technology policy options through discussions and forums and ensure their implementation at the intersection of business and government. She has extensive experience examining policy issues in support of NASA, and has been involved in their strategic planning processes for astronaut medical care and cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. She man­ag­es a vari­ety of OSD pro­grams includ­ing an out­reach effort for the Depart­ment of Defense to the start-up com­mu­nity across the coun­try to find inno­v­a­tive tech­nolo­gies to meet the chal­lenges faced by the Ser­vices and Gov­ern­ment agen­cies. Dr. Buss performs science and technology trends analysis and recommends policy solutions to some of the country’s most pervasive problems. She has also directed and assisted research on numerous government contracts, including systematic reviews and gap analyses. Dr. Buss is an authority in her scientific field with national recognition in her area of expertise. She is responsible for major projects requiring integration/coordination across multiple scientific disciplines.

The Honorable Zachary J. Lemnios

Board of Regents Member, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

The Honorable Zachary J. Lemnios is a Senior Executive with over 40 years of experience in industry, government and academia, who has led the development and application of advanced technologies for national and global security. He served as Vice President of Research Strategy and Worldwide Operations, Vice President of Physical Sciences, and Vice President of Government Programs, globally across IBM Research.

Prior to joining IBM, Mr. Lemnios served three terms in high level civilian leadership in the Department of Defense with detailed and extended interactions across the whole of US government and with leaders across US allied nations. Mr. Lemnios was confirmed as The Honorable Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Engineering) by the United States Senate. In this position, Mr. Lemnios was the Chief Technology Officer for Department of Defense and shaped the Department’s technical strategy to support the President’s national security objectives and the Secretary’s priorities. He launched Department and international initiatives in large data analytics, decision support, engineering education, electronic war- fare, cyber, autonomy, advanced propulsion, hypersonics, and directed energy concepts as future capabilities for the nation. Mr. Lemnios received special recognition from the Australian Government Department of Defence and was awarded Office of Secretary of Defense Medal for Exceptional Public Service and the Office of Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service.

Lemnios also served as the first Chief Technology Officer of MIT Lincoln Laboratory. He has authored over 40 papers, holds 4 patents in advanced GaAs device and MMIC technology and is a Life Fellow of the IEEE.

Honorable Alan R. Shaffer

Board of Regents Member, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

alan shaffer head shotThe Honorable Alan R. Shaffer served as the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment (A&S) from January 2019 to January 20, 2021. Senate confirmed in January 2019, he was responsible to the Under Secretary of Defense (A&S) for all matters pertaining to acquisition; contract administration; logistics and materiel readiness; installations and environment; operational energy; chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons; the acquisition workforce; and the defense industrial base.

From 2015 to 2018, Mr. Shaffer served as the Director, NATO Collaboration Support Office in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. In this role, he was responsible for coordinating and synchronizing the Science and Technology (S&T) collaboration between NATO member and partner Nations, comprising a network of about 5,000 scientists.

Previous to his role at NATO, Mr. Shaffer served as the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (ASD(R&E)) from 2007-2015. In this position, Mr. Shaffer was responsible for formulating, planning and reviewing the DoD Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) programs, plans, strategy, priorities, and execution of the DoD RDT&E budget that totals roughly $25 billion per year. He also served twice as the Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering from 2007-2009 and 2012-2015.

In 2009, he was appointed as the first Director, Operational Energy, Plans and Programs (Acting). Mr. Shaffer has also served as the Executive Director for several senior DoD Task Forces, including review of all research, acquisition, and test activities during the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure. In 2007, he was the Executive Director for the DoD Energy Security Task Force and, and from 2007-2012, he served as the Executive Director of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protection (MRAP) Task Force, where he was responsible for oversight, fielding and employment of 27,000 MRAPs across the Department of Defense.

Before entering the federal government, Mr. Shaffer served 24 years as a commissioned officer in the United States Air Force and retired in the grade of Colonel. While serving, he held positions in command, weather, intelligence, and acquisition oversight with assignments in Utah, California, Ohio, Honduras, Germany, Virginia, and Nebraska.

His military career included deployments to Honduras in the mid-1980s and direct support of the United States Army, 3rd Armored Division in Hanau, Germany. During Operation DESERT STORM, he was responsible for deployment of the 500-person theater weather force and upon retirement from the Air Force in 2000, Mr. Shaffer was appointed to the Senior Executive Service. In 2001, he assumed the position as Director, Plans and Programs, Defense Research and Engineering.

Mr. Shaffer earned a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics from the University of Vermont in 1976, a second Bachelor of Science in Meteorology from the University of Utah, a Master of Science in Meteorology from the Naval Postgraduate School, and a Master of Science in National Resource Strategy from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. He was awarded the Meritorious Executive Presidential Rank Award in 2004, the Department of Defense Distinguished Civilian Service Award, and the Distinguished Executive Presidential Rank Award in 2007 and 2015.

Mike Fritze, PhD

Senior Fellow, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

MFritze1Dr. Mike Fritze is a Senior Fellow and former Vice President at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. He is responsible for the Microelectronics related portfolio with interests and activities in the areas of secure access strategies, supply chain issues, support of legacy technologies, DoD innovation policy, outreach to Industry and strengthening the US Industrial Base. Customers have included OSD, DARPA, USAF and NNSA. Dr. Fritze is active on the NDIA Electronics Division co-chairing the Policy subcommittee. Prior to his affiliation with the Institute, Dr. Fritze ran microelectronics Programs at USC-ISI and was a Program Manager at DARPA MTO. Prior to that, he was a staff member at MITLL.

James J. Richardson, PhD

Senior Fellow, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

JRichardsonDr. James Richardson is a Senior Fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. He previously served as Vice President for Research and Chief Scientist of the Institute, where he led technology and technology management studies funded by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA), NASA, the National Intelligence Council, IBM Corporation, the National Science Foundation, and other agencies. From 1987 to 1994 he served as Director of the Land Systems Office of DARPA. He was also Special Assistant to the Director and Scientific Advisor for the US Ambassador to the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty negotiations in Vienna, Austria. He led the development of new combat technologies, represented DoD in the “Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle” (Clean Car) initiative, and directed the DARPA/Army/USMC Joint Armor Anti-Armor program chartered by the Secretary of Defense. His office was involved in the development of advanced materials, unconventional lethality and survivability technologies and hypervelocity projectiles, the first large (9MJ) electromagnetic gun and a “smart minefield.” Prior to DARPA, Dr. Richardson held several positions at the U.S. Army Missile Command at Redstone Arsenal, AL. He has a BSME from North Carolina State University, an MSE from the University of Alabama, and a PhD in Theoretical & Applied Mechanics from the University of Illinois.

Moriah Locklear, PhD

Research Fellow, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

MLocklearDr. Moriah Locklear is a Research Fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Prior to joining the Institute, Dr. Locklear obtained her PhD in organic chemistry from University of Nebraska at Lincoln where her graduate research focused on the study of peroxides for the construction of drug-related functionalities. Simultaneously, Dr. Locklear served as a legislative intern in the Nebraska State Legislature focusing on a variety of issues related to veteran affairs, technology policy, and green energy. She received her bachelor’s degree in pharmaceutical sciences with minors in chemistry and comparative religion at Ohio State University.

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